Monday, December 31, 2012

Kenyir Hydroelectric

Sultan Mahmud Power Station or Kenyir Dam (Malay: Empangan Kenyir) is the hydroelectric dam which forms Kenyir Lake, Terengganu, Malaysia. It is located 50 km southwest of Kuala Terengganu on the Kenyir River. The project is a multipurpose hydroelectric power and flood mitigation scheme.

Tuesday, December 4, 2012

Continental CC5 just RM180/tire

Last Saturday, I went to Klang and find the Kedai Papan, the cheapest tire shop maybe in KL. Replaced my 4 old tires which cost me RM720.00. The others tire shop quote me at RM215/tire. Woowww.... so much gap from the Kedai Papan.

If you are from the shah alam - tol shapadu - go straight through Batu Belah until you arrive at traffic light and then turn left going to Klang town. Just go straight and will go thru some traffic light. The Kedai Papan is just opposite shell.

Saturday, December 1, 2012

Samsung Galaxy Y at RM400/=

Last week I bought Samsung Galaxy young at Tesco Manjung. The specs as below:
  •  Powerful & Compact
  •  Rich Smart Experience
  •  5 coloured back covers in-box
  • Battery 1200mA
  • Camera 2 Megapixels 
  • 97.5 gram weight 
  • 8G memory card 
  • Smart case with pocket
2GB will cost RM360 without casing with pocket (will show later). Just add RM40 to be total up RM400/= with 8GB memory card + casing with pocket. 

Wednesday, October 31, 2012

GEA Heat Exchangers / GEA PHE Systems / Global

Welded plate heat exchanger 

Fully welded - but adaptable at any time

GEABloc combines two different plate corrugations in an innovative way. The plates are rotated through 90° to one another and then welded together to produce two different cross-flow channels. The frame is made of four pillars, a bottom plate and a top plate together with four side pressure plates, and connections mounted in the pressure plates. All frame components are bolted together for easily dismantling to clean and maintain the plate pack.

GEABloc is available in various corrugation designs and sizes for a wide range of applications. Adjustable deflectors allow the heat exchanger to be adapted to its operating points delivering these features:

    Max. operating temperature 315° C, on both sides
    Max. operating pressure 32 bars, on both sides
    Material 1.4404, SMO, Titanium, etc.
    Surface area 1–320m²
    Connection diameter DN50–DN400
    Max. flow rate 3,860m³/h
    Corrugation patterns: Herring-bone, Dimple

This PHE is generally used in the oil and gas industry, in petrochemical and chemical applications, in the automobile and pharmaceuticals industry, as well as in paper manufacturing.

Fully welded plate heat exchanger

Thursday, October 25, 2012

How much it cost to change Toyota Vios oil engine?

How much it cost to change your Toyota Vios Motor Engine Oil? Normally it will cost more than RM170 and it included car wash and minor inspection. The major parts for this minor maintenance just oil filter, semi synthetics 10-40 Toyota Motor Engine Oil and gasket.

Me? Just send to service workshop. The cost of the maintenance quite cheap and will not exceed RM100. Agreed that there is pro and cons when you send your auto to non service provider.

Tuesday, October 23, 2012

Samsung Series 5 Ultra Core i5

Ultrabook is a extremely thin laptop and you will learn more with this video.

Saturday, October 20, 2012

Manjung 4 - 1x1000MW Coal Fired Power Plant

Manjung 4 - 1x1000MW Coal Fired Power Plant the ultra-super critical is in progress which will be completed by 2015.

TNB Janamanjung Sdn Bhd, a wholly owned subsidiary of Tenaga Nasional Bhd expects to increase revenue to RM4 billion a year from now when the RM3 billion coal fired power plant Manjung Power Station 4 in the Sultan Azlan Shah (SJSAS), Lumut, Perak operation in 2015.

Chief Operating Officer and General Manager, Shamsul Ahmad, said the forecast was based on the capacity of projects worth RM5.8 billion, which is able to produce an additional 1,000 megawatts (MW) of electricity a day.

Monday, October 15, 2012

Ipad 2 RM1199 - Midvalley Megamall

Apple Ipad 2 and Smart Cover

3 months ago I was in Harvey Norman MidValley Kuala Lumpur. This is what I had grab. Ipad 2 for RM1199. Bought half of the price with my Maybank Credit Card treatpoints. RM50 for 9,700 treatpoints.

Ipad 2 Description as follow:

The iPad 2 is the second generation iPad, a tablet computer designed, developed and marketed by Apple Inc. It serves primarily as a platform for audio-visual media including books, periodicals, movies, music, games, presentations and web content. The iPad 2 has a lithium-ion polymer battery that lasts up to 10 hours, a dual core Apple A5 processor and VGA front-facing and 720p rear-facing cameras designed for FaceTime video calling.

The device is available initially with three storage sizes, 16, 32 and 64 GB and two varying connectivity options, Wi-Fi only or Wi-Fi and cellular. Each variation of the device is available with either a black or white front glass panel. However, upon the release of the 3rd generation iPad, only the 16 GB variation with two connectivity options and two front glass panel options is available.

Plate Heat Exchanger

Plate Heat Exchanger

Tuesday, October 9, 2012

Fieldbus HART 375 Field Communicator

Fieldbus HART 375 Field Communicator

Shortlisted Bidders for Prai Power Plant Project

Sources said the EC hoped to announce the winner of the bid by October or November with final approval from the Government.

The tender process this round would be for a capacity of 1,000 megawatts (MW) to 1,400 MW, out of the total of 4,500 MW of power capacity that would be up for bidding in stages.

Today already 9th Oct which the result will be announced soon. 

Saturday, October 6, 2012

Honda Accord Coupe Concept 2012

Honda Accord Coupe Concept 2012

Tuesday, September 25, 2012

VEGAPULS 61 Level measurement of liquids – the reliable solution for simple applications

Application area

The VEGAPULS 61 is a radar sensor for continuous level measurement of liquids under simple process conditions. The VEGAPULS 61 is an economical solution through its simple and versatile mounting possibilities. The encapsulated antenna system ensures a maintenance-free operation.

    Non-contact measurement
    High plant availability, because wear and maintenance-free
    Exact measuring results independent of process conditions

Technical data
Measuring range up to 35 m 
Process fitting thread G1½, 1½ NPT
mounting strap compression flanges from DN 80, 3"
Process temperature -40 … +80 °C
Process pressure -1 … +3 bar (-100 … +300 kPa)
Measuring precision +/- 2 mm
SIL qualification up to SIL2


Monday, July 2, 2012

Humidity Gauge - Hygrometer

A Hygrometer (UK: /haɪˈɡrɒmɪtə/) is an instrument used for measuring the moisture content in the environmental air, or humidity. Humidity is difficult to measure accurately. Most measurement devices usually rely on measurements of some other quantity such as temperature, pressure, mass or a mechanical or electrical change in a substance as moisture is absorbed.

From calculations based on physical principles, or especially by calibration with a reference standard, these measured quantities can lead to a measurement of humidity. Modern electronic devices use temperature of condensation, changes in electrical resistance, and changes in electrical capacitance to measure humidity changes.

Monday, June 25, 2012

Pelton wheel / Pelton turbine / Hydro-power (3D animation)

The Pelton turbine is an impulse turbine that extracts energy from the impulse of moving water and is the preferred turbine for hydro-power.

Sunday, June 17, 2012

Garmin Nuvi 50LM + Garmin Original Carrying Case + Sandisk USB Cruzer Switch CZ52 8GB

Product Description (RM498.00 - Maybank

With a big 5" (12.7 cm) touchscreen, more than 5 million points of interest (POIs) and spoken turn-by-turn directions, nüvi 50LM makes driving fun again. Plus, with FREE lifetime map updates, you always can keep your roads and POIs up to date.

Get Turn-by-turn Directions

nüvi 50LM’s intuitive interface greets you with 2 simple choices: “Where To?” and “View Map.” Touch the screen to easily look up addresses and services and to be guided to your destination with voice-prompted, turn-by-turn directions that speak street names. nüvi 50LM’s speed limit indicator shows you how fast you can go on most major roads. With its “Where Am I?” emergency locator, you always know your location. It also comes preloaded with millions of POIs and offers the ability to add your own.

Enjoy FREE Lifetime Map Updates

With FREE lifetime map¹ updates, you always have the most up-to-date maps, POIs and navigation information available at your fingertips. Map updates are available for download up to 4 times a year with no subscription or update fees and no expiration dates.

Know the Lane Before It’s Too Late

Now there’s no more guessing which lane you need to be in to make an upcoming turn. Available in select metropolitan areas, lane assist with junction view guides you to the correct lane for an approaching turn or exit, making unfamiliar intersections and exits easy to navigate. It realistically displays road signs and junctions on your route along with arrows that indicate the proper lane for navigation.

¹ FREE lifetime map updates entitle you to receive up to 4 map data updates per year, when and as such updates are made available on the Garmin website, for this specific Garmin product only until this product’s useful life expires or Garmin no longer receives map data from its third party supplier, whichever is shorter. The updates you receive will be updates to the same geographic map data originally included with your Garmin product when originally purchased. Garmin may terminate your lifetime map updates at any time if you violate any of the terms of the End User License Agreement accompanying your nüvi product.


    Stay up-to-date on changing roads and POIs with FREE lifetime maps.
    View routes on the big 5" (12.7 cm) touchscreen.
    Look up addresses for over 5 million points of interest.
    Hear spoken street names.
    Know the lane before it’s too late with lane assist with junction view.
    Keep out of trouble with the built-in speed limit indicator.

Friday, June 15, 2012

Earthing system

In electricity supply systems, an earthing system defines the electrical potential of the conductors relative to the Earth's conductive surface. The choice of earthing system can affect the safety and electromagnetic compatibility of the power supply, and regulations can vary considerably among countries. Most electrical systems connect one supply conductor to earth (ground). If a fault within an electrical device connects a "hot" (unearthed) supply conductor to an exposed conductive surface, anyone touching it while electrically connected to the earth (e.g., by standing on it, or touching an earthed sink) will complete a circuit back to the earthed supply conductor and receive an electric shock.

A protective earth, known as an equipment grounding conductor in the US National Electrical Code, avoids this hazard by keeping the exposed conductive surfaces of a device at earth potential. To avoid possible voltage drop no current is allowed to flow in this conductor under normal circumstances, but fault currents will usually trip or blow the fuse or circuit breaker protecting the circuit. A high impedance line-to-ground fault insufficient to trip the overcurrent protection may still trip a residual-current device (ground fault circuit interrupter or GFCI in North America) if one is present.

In contrast, a functional earth connection serves a purpose other than shock protection, and may normally carry current. Examples of devices that use functional earth connections include surge suppressors and electromagnetic interference filters, certain antennas and measurement instruments. But the most important example of a functional earth is the neutral in an electrical supply system. It is a current-carrying conductor connected to earth, often but not always at only one point to avoid earth currents.

The NEC calls it a groundED supply conductor to distinguish it from the equipment groundING conductor. In most developed countries, 220/230/240V sockets with earthed contacts were introduced either just before or soon after WW2, though with considerable national variation in popularity. Until the mid 1990s, US 110V power outlets generally lacked protective earth terminals. In much of the developing world, the situation is stil unclear, and earthed outlets may or may not be provided, and where they are these may not always be reliably connected.

In the absence of a supply earth, devices needing an earth connection often used the supply neutral. Some used dedicated ground rods. Many 110V appliances have polarized plugs to maintain a distinction between "live" and "neutral", but using the supply neutral for equipment earthing can be highly problematical. "Live" and "neutral" might be accidentally reversed in the outlet or plug, or the neutral-to-earth connection might fail or be improperly installed. Even normal load currents in the neutral might generate hazardous voltage drops. For these reasons, most countries have now mandated dedicated protective earth connections that are now almost universal.

source: Wikipedia

Monday, April 30, 2012


  • Motor Power : 1,750 W
  • Max. Pressure : 120 bar
  • Max. Flow Volume : 390 l/h
  • Max. Flow Temp. : 60oC

Wednesday, April 25, 2012

Stainless tube bundle - heat exchanger

Small tube bundle, stainless steel construction, 3/8" O.D. tubes.

Friday, April 20, 2012

Choosing the Right Spark Plug -- It Really Does Make a Difference

Planning to install new spark plugs in your vehicle? There are lots of choices in spark plug design these days -- plugs with one, two, three, or even four ground electrodes. There are also exotic materials like platinum, yttrium, and iridium for center and ground electrodes. So how to choose?

Bosch, one of the largest suppliers of spark plugs as original equipment for auto manufacturers as well as in the aftermarket, offers some cogent thoughts on selecting the best plug for your vehicle and how you use it.

  • Avoid downgrading from the original plugsLink
  • Take advantage of the latest technology
  • Install plugs that meet your specific needs
  • What's your engine's condition?
  • Are you rigorous in having maintenance performed?
  • The bottom line?
If you want to find out details, kindly go this original web.

Sunday, April 15, 2012

Digital protective relays

The functions of electromechanical protection systems are now being replaced by microprocessor-based digital protective relays, sometimes called "numeric relays".

Wednesday, April 4, 2012

The Global Positioning System (GPS)

The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a space-based satellite navigation system that provides location and time information in all weather, anywhere on or near the Earth, where there is an unobstructed line of sight to four or more GPS satellites. It is maintained by the United States government and is freely accessible by anyone with a GPS receiver. The system imposes some technical limitations[clarification needed] which are only removed for authorized users.

The GPS program provides critical capabilities to military, civil and commercial users around the world. In addition, GPS is the backbone for modernizing the global air traffic system.

The GPS project was developed in 1973 to overcome the limitations of previous navigation systems,[1] integrating ideas from several predecessors, including a number of classified engineering design studies from the 1960s. GPS was created and realized by the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) and was originally run with 24 satellites. It became fully operational in 1994.

Advances in technology and new demands on the existing system have now led to efforts to modernize the GPS system and implement the next generation of GPS III satellites and Next Generation Operational Control System (OCX).[2] Announcements from the Vice President and the White House in 1998 initiated these changes. In 2000, U.S. Congress authorized the modernization effort, referred to as GPS III.

In addition to GPS, other systems are in use or under development. The Russian GLObal NAvigation Satellite System (GLONASS) was in use by only the Russian military, until it was made fully available to civilians in 2007. There are also the planned European Union Galileo positioning system, Chinese Compass navigation system, and Indian Regional Navigational Satellite System.

source: wikipedia

Friday, March 30, 2012

Digital Pressure Test Gauges

  • • Precision pressure measurement
  • • Field gauge calibration
  • • Pressure safety valve (PSV) testing
  • • Pressure regulator testing
  • • Pressure ranges to 36,000 psi (2500 bar)
  • • 0.025%, 0.05%, 0.1% or 0.2% FS accuracy
  • • % pressure indication with fan-shaped graph scale for visual reference
  • • Fully temperature compensated accuracy

Sunday, March 25, 2012

Removing gauge needles with a fork

This video illustrates the easiest way that I have found to remove the gauge needles from an instrument cluster.

Sunday, March 18, 2012

Double pipe heat exchanger

Double pipe heat exchanger

6 x 8 double-pipe heat exchangers manufactured to ASME Code Sec. VIII, Div. I

Thursday, March 15, 2012

Overcurrent Relay

An "overcurrent relay" is a type of protective relay which operates when the load current exceeds a preset value. The ANSI device number is 50 for an instantaneous overcurrent (IOC), 51 for a time over current (TOC).

In a typical application the overcurrent relay is connected to a current transformer and calibrated to operate at or above a specific current level. When the relay operates, one or more contacts will operate and energize to trip (open) a circuit breaker.

Tuesday, March 13, 2012

iPad 2 vs. iPad 1st Generation (iPad 1)

iPad 2 vs. iPad 1st Generation (iPad 1)

Sunday, March 11, 2012

Better shots with handphones - Nokia 808 Pureview

Nokia 808 PureView – revolutionary camera technology; great smartphone

The game changer! Nokia 808 PureView takes every bit of image goodness captured by a 41MP sensor and Carl Zeiss lens and turns it into beautifully detailed images and Full HD videos. Be ready to shoot and share with friends in an instant.

Nokia 808 PureView won the award for Best New Mobile Handset, Device or Tablet at Mobile World Congress 2012.

Garmin nuvi 2460LT

Garmin nuvi 2460LT
  • 5” screen
  • Powered mount
  • Advanced detour functionality allows you exclude roads on the fly
  • Ability to exclude specific roads and areas from all route calculations
  • Lane Assist
  • Junction View
  • Well-designed voice command functionality
  • Excellent Bluetooth quality
  • Lifetime traffic
  • myTrends learns preferred routes for routine trips
  • Customization options
  • Speed limit display, warnings and adjustment
  • Multi-destination routing
  • Can import multi-destination routes from MapSource

Friday, March 9, 2012

AINOL Novo 7 Paladin

  • One 7” Android 4.0 Tablet PC for RM399 instead of RM830
  • Two 7” Android 4.0 Tablet PCs for RM750 instead of RM1,660 (only RM375 per unit)

Product specifications:

  • Model: AINOL Novo 7 Paladin
  • Colours: White or black
  • Dimensions: 176mm (L) x 111mm (W) x 14mm (H)
  • Weight: 360g
  • Operating system: Android 4.0 (Ice Cream Sandwich)
  • Processor: Ingenic JZ4770 Xburst, 1GHz
  • GPU: GC860
  • Memory: 512MB
  • Storage: 8GB NAND Flash (about 2.2GB used by system space)
  • 7” multi-touch capacitive touch screen
  • Resolution: 800 x 480
  • Visible angle: 150°
  • Supports TF card up to 32GB (not included)
  • 1080p full HD decoding supported
  • 300M high-speed wireless Wi-Fi / 3G / Ethernet connectivity
  • Wi-Fi: 802.11 b / g /n supported
  • Battery: 4,000mAh Li-ion
  • Languages: English, Chinese, Spanish, German, Italian, French, and more.
  • Mini USB port and 3.5mm headphone jack included

Package includes:

  • 1x Ainol Novo 7 Paladin Android 4.0 tablet PC
  • 1x Earphones
  • 1x USB cable
  • 1x User manual
Pictures and moving pictures parade colours and tones on seven-inch, high-resolution display landscapes as tablets decode 1080p HD videos and hieroglyphics. Equipped with Android 4.0, portable devices entertain owners by playing music, reading emails, and throwing grumpy fowls against swine. 4,000mAh lithium-ion energy reserves ensure androids continue running when in virtual Internet realms and on treadmills, while one-year warranties shield against manufacturer’s defects. Rejoicing with complimentary nationwide delivery, enthusiasts eagerly wait by the door as sleek tablet machines make their way to houses, apartments, and pet hotels.

AINOL Novo 7 Paladin

Monday, March 5, 2012

iPad 3 - Next Generation

We expect some major changes with the new iPad 3, but what will they be. My first thoughts are a possible HD design and the possibility of added 3D features. They could even go holographic on us. I imagine they will upgrade the camera features and include some of the newer software we've seen on the Macs. teleconferencing capabilities as well. As displayed maybe they will change the look of the ipad to a wider screen and sleeker design. Either way it will be interesting to see what the new design will have to offer.

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Monday, February 27, 2012

Protection Relays

In electrical engineering, a protective relay is a complex electromechanical apparatus, often with more than one coil, designed to calculate operating conditions on an electrical circuit and trip circuit breakers when a fault is detected. Unlike switching type relays with fixed and usually ill-defined operating voltage thresholds and operating times, protective relays have well-established, selectable, time/current (or other operating parameter) curves.

Such relays may be elaborate, using arrays of induction disks, shaded-pole magnets, operating and restraint coils, solenoid-type operators, telephone-relay contacts, and phase-shifting networks. Protection relays respond to such conditions as over-current, over-voltage, reverse power flow, over- and under- frequency. Distance relays trip for faults up to a certain distance away from a substation but not beyond that point. An important transmission line or generator unit will have cubicles dedicated to protection, with many individual electromechanical devices.

The various protective functions available on a given relay are denoted by standard ANSI Device Numbers. For example, a relay including function 51 would be a timed overcurrent protective relay.
Design and theory of these protective devices is an important part of the education of an electrical engineer who specializes in power systems. Today these devices are nearly entirely replaced with microprocessor-based digital protective relays (numerical relays) that emulate their electromechanical ancestors with great precision and convenience in application.

By combining several functions in one case, numerical relays also save capital cost and maintenance cost over electromechanical relays. However, due to their very long life span, tens of thousands of these "silent sentinels" are still protecting transmission lines and electrical apparatus all over the world.

Thursday, February 23, 2012

Vios Brake Pad

Toyota 100% Genuine Brake Pad (Front)

VIOS (2003 ~ 2007) : NCP42

ALTIS (2002 ~ 2007) : ZZE121, ZZE122




Monday, February 20, 2012

How to Change Spark Plugs

The humble spark plug has changed very little over the years—and changing them is as simple as ever.

To complete this How-To you will need:

A vehicle owner's manual
New spark plugs
A socket wrench
A spark plug socket
A socket wrench swivel joint
And a socket wrench extension
A spark plug wire puller
A cleaning rag
And rubbing alcohol

Step 1: Let car cool down

Park your car and wait for it to cool down. This may take a few hours, since the spark plugs are among the hottest parts of your engine.

Step 2: Locate spark plugs

Pop open the hood and locate your spark plugs by referring to your owner's manual.

Step 3: Remove one spark plug

Remove one spark plug wire from the end of the row by pulling its boot, or the little cap where it connects to the engine—not by yanking on the wire itself.

Tip: You can also use a spark plug wire puller to easily detach the wire.

Step 4: Attach spark plug to socket wrench

Attach the spark plug socket to the socket wrench. You may need to use a swivel joint and/or a socket wrench extension to reach the spark plug.

Step 5: Remove spark plug

Remove the spark plug by turning the socket wrench counterclockwise.

Step 6: Make sure hole's clean

Make sure that the spark plug hole is clean. If necessary, use a rag and rubbing alcohol or compressed air to clean the spark plug hole.

Step 7: Install new spark plug

Carefully install a new spark plug into the empty hole and tighten it by hand.

Step 8: Secure new spark plug

Use the socket wrench to secure the new spark plug in place.

Step 9: Reconnect spark plug wire

Reconnect the spark plug wire onto the new spark plug.

Tip: Changing your spark plugs one at a time prevents incorrect installation that can affect the car's timing and engine performance.

Step 10: Move on to next spark plug

When you have successfully changed a spark plug, move on to the next one until you have finished installing all new plugs.

Friday, February 10, 2012

Papago H8

The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a space-based satellite navigation system that provides location and time information in all weather, anywhere on or near the Earth, where there is an unobstructed line of sight to four or more GPS satellites.

Papago H8
  • 6.0" touch screen (SLIM) - high defination
  • Multi-language
  • Voice command
  • Preinstalled Papago X8.5
  • Build in memory: 2GB
  • Video, music
  • TMC ready
  • Price: RM849

Monday, February 6, 2012

What is an actuator?

motor actuator

An actuator is a type of motor for moving or controlling a mechanism or system. It is operated by a source of energy, usually in the form of an electric current, hydraulic fluid pressure or pneumatic pressure, and converts that energy into some kind of motion. An actuator is the mechanism by which an agent acts upon an environment. The agent can be either an artificial intelligence agent or any other autonomous being (human, other animal, etc).

source: wikipedia

An actuator is something that converts energy into motion. It also can be used to apply a force. An actuator typically is a mechanical device that takes energy — usually energy that is created by air, electricity or liquid — and converts it into some kind of motion. That motion can be in virtually any form, such as blocking, clamping or ejecting. Actuators typically are used in manufacturing or industrial applications and might be used in devices such as motors, pumps, switches and valves.


Tuesday, January 31, 2012

An uninterruptible power supply (UPS)

An uninterruptible power supply, also uninterruptible power source, UPS or battery/flywheel backup, is an electrical apparatus that provides emergency power to a load when the input power source, typically mains power, fails. A UPS differs from an auxiliary or emergency power system or standby generator in that it will provide instantaneous or near-instantaneous protection from input power interruptions by means of one or more attached batteries and associated electronic circuitry for low power users, and or by means of diesel generators and flywheels for high power users. The on-battery runtime of most uninterruptible power sources is relatively short—5–15 minutes being typical for smaller units—but sufficient to allow time to bring an auxiliary power source on line, or to properly shut down the protected equipment.

While not limited to protecting any particular type of equipment, a UPS is typically used to protect computers, data centers, telecommunication equipment or other electrical equipment where an unexpected power disruption could cause injuries, fatalities, serious business disruption or data loss. UPS units range in size from units designed to protect a single computer without a video monitor (around 200 VA rating) to large units powering entire data centers, buildings, or even cities.

Tuesday, January 17, 2012

GE's Office Bently Nevada, Minden Nevada

GE's Office Bently Nevada, Minden Nevada

Sunday, January 1, 2012

Sheet Metal Thickness Gauges

Gauge (ga)

Standard Steel Thickness (inches)

Galvanized Steel Thickness (inches)

Aluminum Thickness (inches)






























































































































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